2020-2021学年高一英语外研版(2020)选择性必修第一册Unit2OnwardsandupwardsSectionⅠ导学讲义

Unit 2 Onwards and upwards 背景导学 Four Things To Do When Feeling Like Giving Up   在生活中,在工作上,不管你是多么成功,成功都不会赋予你免受生活带来的苦难的能力。不管是在工作上还是感情上,当我们感觉我们生活的目的不明确,想要放弃的时候会怎样呢?   Go Back To “Why” As Simon Sinek says, it starts with “why”. Sometimes, we start with one vision in mind and end up moving so far away from why we started a business, job or relationship in the first place that we end up lost and questioning our decisions and actions. Maybe you can't remember the last time you were happy. Perhaps your big colorful picture of where you wanted to head has slowly turned to black and white. Get back that clarity! Every 90 days revisit your big “why” to ensure you're on track and achieving what you want. Learn To Feel Uncomfortable Life is not easy nor is it meant to be. We are always facing hurdles and obstacles that we must overcome, which is all part of the journey. If you can accept that things will get tough and it won't always be sweet-smelling roses and docile kittens, you'll get yourself better prepared for what's to come. When you feel stuck in a rut you must learn to breathe, reset and revisit your goals. What is it that you're going for in business and in life? A simple readjustment and a brief “time out” can dramatically move you forward like you never thought possible. Win Through Persistence Winston Churchill said, “If you have an important point to make, don't try to be subtle or clever. Use a pile driver. Hit the point once. Then come back and hit it again. Then hit it a third time—a great hit.” Persistence is the key if you want to win. I've felt like giving up many times during my entrepreneurial journey and the persistence to make things happen has kept me going. Understanding and truly believing that persistence delivers results will keep you moving forward. Acknowledge Challenges Oh yes, there will be tough times—but you already know this. When you feel like giving up because it's too tough, it's not a surprise as you knew the journey wouldn't be full of rainbows and bunnies. Acknowledge the challenge, embrace it, learn what you can and power on! 【译文】 想要放弃时,要做的四件事 回过头来问自己“为什么” 就像西蒙·斯涅克所说,得先找找“为什么”。有时候,起初在我们心里都有一个关于事业、工作或感情的美好愿景,但是最后的结果却与我们的愿景相差太远。之后我们就会迷茫并且质疑我们最初的决定和行动。也许你不记得上次开心是什么时候。也许在你脑海中你想要去的地方的那个大的五彩缤纷的画面也已经慢慢地变成黑白色。让它变得清晰起来吧!每隔90天就问问自己“为什么”,以确保你走在正确的道路上,并实现你的目标。

学着去感受生活中的不舒适 生活并不容易,也不应该是容易的。在生活中,我们总是会遇到我们必须跨越的困难和障碍,因为这是这段旅途的一部分。你得接受这些你认为很困难的东西,生活中并不会满是芳香的玫瑰和温顺的小猫,为了能应对接下来所要面对的困难,你得让你自己变得更好。当你感觉生活刻板乏味时,你要学会呼吸、重新设立、重新审视你的目标。在你的事业和生活中,那算是什么?小小的调整,短暂的时间内就会让你做到在你过去认为那是不可能做到的事。

坚持就是胜利 温斯顿·丘吉尔说过,“要是你有一件重要的事情要去做,不要试着去洞察一切,或者是自作聪明,用你满腔的干劲儿,做第一次,不行就回到原点,再试一次,或者做第三次——或者很多次。”要是你想要取得胜利,坚持才是最重要的。在我创业期间我觉得我放弃了很多次,但是是坚持不懈地去做才让我获得了成功。真正地了解,真正地相信坚持不懈会让你不断前进。

接受挑战 哦,是的,肯定会有一段艰苦的岁月——但是你是早已经知道会这样的。当你感觉太困难而想要放弃的时候,你也并不会觉得很惊讶,因为这段旅程注定不会一帆风顺。接受挑战,拥抱它,学习你能学到的,掌握你能掌握的能力。

Section Ⅰ Starting out & Understanding ideas Ⅰ.课标单词 1.单词拼写 ①inform/ɪnˈfɔːm/v.通知,告知 ②dread/dred/v.畏惧,惧怕 ③overnight/ˌəʊvəˈnaɪt/adv.突然,一下子 ④persevere/ˌpɜːsɪˈvɪə/v.锲而不舍,坚持不懈 ⑤manuscript/ˈmænjuskrɪpt/n.手稿,底稿 ⑥rye/raɪ/n.黑麦 ⑦best-seller/ˌbestˈselə/n.畅销书;畅销产品 ⑧Victorian/vɪkˈtɔːriən/adj.英国维多利亚(女王)时代的 ⑨laureate/ˈlɔːriət/n.重要奖项获得者 ⑩endurance/ɪnˈdjʊərəns/n.(忍)耐力 delighted/dɪˈlaɪtɪd/adj.愉快的,高兴的 2.根据英文释义选词填空 debt, pace, nevertheless, outcome  ①pace the speed at which something happens or is done ②outcome the result or effect of an action or event ③debt an amount of money that you owe ④nevertheless despite something that you have just mentioned 3.词汇拓展 ①rarely/ˈreəli/adv.很少,难得→rare/reə(r)/adj.稀少的;稀罕的;珍贵的 ②rejection/rɪˈdʒekʃ(ə)n/n.拒绝,否决→reject/rɪˈdʒekt/v.拒绝,不接受;排斥 ③criticism/ˈkrɪtɪsɪz(ə)m/n.批评;指责→criticise/ˈkrɪtɪsaɪz/v.批评;批判;挑剔;指责→critic/ˈkrɪtɪk/n.评论家;批评者→critical/ˈkrɪtɪkl/adj.批评的;批判性的;挑剔的 ④classic/ˈklæsɪk/n.名著;经典作品adj.典型的,第一流的→classical/ˈklæsɪkl/adj.古典的;经典的;传统的 ⑤guarantee/ˌɡærənˈtiː/v.保证;确保→guaranteed/ˌɡærənˈtiːd/adj.必然的;确定会发生的 Ⅱ.情境词块 1.give up 放弃 2.regret to do 对做……感到遗憾 3.take for example 以……为例 4.have...in common with 与……有共同点 5.stick...on 粘上 6.survive on 靠……活下来;靠……生存 7.along the lines of 类似于(提及的方式或东西) 8.turn down 拒绝;调低(音量或热度) 9.a total of 总共,总计,总数为 10.translate into 翻译成 11.along with 连同……一起,与……一道;沿(顺)着 12.struggle to do 努力做;挣扎着去做 13.dream of 梦想 14.in print (指书)已印好,可买到;(指作品)已印出,已出版 15.under...names 用……名字 16.play a part 起作用;扮演角色 17.devote oneself to 致力于,献身于,投身于 18.make a living 谋生 Ⅲ.情境佳句 1. 句型公式 独立主格结构 教材原句 The response from a publisher comes back and the writer eagerly opens and reads it, their hearts sinking when they reach that final sentence. 尝试翻译 出版商给了回信,作家急切地拆开来读,但读到这最后一句,心随即跌落谷底。

2. 句型公式 现在分词短语作伴随状语 教材原句 Rowling had spent years surviving on little money, spending all her time writing. 尝试翻译 罗琳过了很多年拮据的生活,她把所有时间都用来写作。

3. 句型公式 not...until...“直到……才……” 教材原句 “I wasn't going to give up until every single publisher turned me down, but I often feared that would happen,” she later posted. 尝试翻译 “我不会放弃的,除非所有的出版商都拒绝我。不过我常常担心这真的会发生。”她后来说。

4. 句型公式 to do不定式作表语 教材原句 Their response was to write a book of poems under male names. 尝试翻译 她们的应对方式是以男性名字为笔名写了一本诗集。

5. 句型公式 祈使句+and+陈述句 教材原句 Keep trying and eventually you will read the words “We are delighted to inform you...” 尝试翻译 坚持下去,你终会收到这样的回复:“我们高兴地通知您……” Ⅰ.文本理解 Step 1 Reading for the main idea. What is the main idea of the text? A.Persistence is the key to success. B.Hard work leads to success. C.The response disappoints authors. D.All authors achieve great aims. 答案 A Step 2 Reading for the structure.   Fill in the following blanks with proper words. J.K. Rowling Although 1.rejected twelve times by publishers, she became famous for Harry Potter, which became a global 2.success. J.D. Salinger He received 3.criticism and rejection from several publishers. The Catcher in the Rye became an immediate best-seller after it was 4.published. 5.Brontë sisters Their book of poems which they wrote under 6.male names sold only two copies. However, Jane Eyre, Wuthering Heights and Agnes Grey are 7.regarded as classics of world literature. Conclusion: 8.Perseverance is the key to success. Step 3 Reading for the details.   Choose the best answer according to the text. 1.What's the author's purpose by writing the last sentence in the first paragraph? A.To advise us to be patient. B.To show everyone must face rejection. C.To introduce the following context. D.To promote novels of the famous authors. 答案 C 2.What's the meaning of “Nevertheless” in Paragraph 2? A.Therefore. B.However. C.Besides. D.Afterwards. 答案 B 3.Why did Brontë sisters write a book of poems under male names? A.Because they liked male names. B.Because Robert Southey discouraged them from writing. C.Because male names were more powerful. D.Because the tradition didn't allow women to write. 答案 D 4.According to the passage, success comes to those who . A.stick to their dreams B.may give up at times C.like creating new ideas D.dare to challenge themselves 答案 A Ⅱ.难句突破 1.[图解难句] [自我分析]本句是并列复合句, Harry Potter became a global success是非限制性定语从句,其关系词是as;with over 400 million books sold and translated into more than seventy different languages是“with+宾语+宾语补足语”的复合结构。

[尝试翻译]在收到总共12封拒稿信后,终于有一家出版商同意将她的第一本书印刷500册。我们都知道,《哈利·波特》后来在全球大获成功,销量超过4亿册,被翻译成了70多种不同的语言。

2.[图解难句] [自我分析]when serving in the US Army during the Second World War是省略he was的时间状语从句,其中逻辑主语he与serve之间是逻辑上的主动关系;he是主语,carried和worked on是并列谓语。

[尝试翻译]甚至在二战期间,他在美国陆军服役时,还随身携带了《麦田里的守望者》一书的六章内容,并在整个服役期间一直致力于小说的修改。

3.[图解难句] [自我分析]本句是主从复合句。the overall prize for perseverance是主语,should go to three sisters from Victorian England是谓语和宾语;who dreamt of seeing their words in print是定语从句,in print是介词短语作宾语补足语。  [尝试翻译]也许,坚持不懈的最高荣誉应该颁给来自维多利亚时代的英国的三姐妹,她们梦想着看到自己的作品出版。

Ⅲ.文本复述 Step 1 Question Answering   根据课文内容回答下列问题。

1.What have many famous writers previously faced when it comes to success? When it comes to success, many famous writers have previously faced rejection.  2.How many times was J.K. Rowling rejected by publishers before Harry Potter became a global success? J.K. Rowling was rejected twelve times by publishers before Harry Potter became a global success.  3.Did J.D.Salinger, whose novel The Catcher in the Rye became an immediate best-seller after it was published, receive criticism and rejection from several publishers? Yes, he did.  4.What are Brontë sisters' novels regarded as today, while women were not encouraged to become writers in Victorian times? While women were not encouraged to become writers in Victorian times, today Brontë sisters' novels are regarded as classics of world literature.  5.What is the key to success? Perseverance is the key to success.  Step 2 Text Retelling 将以上句子连成一篇语言流畅、用词准确、逻辑严密的60词左右的短文。

When it comes to success, many famous writers have previously faced rejection. Here are three examples. J.K. Rowling was rejected twelve times by publishers before Harry Potter became a global success. J.D. Salinger, whose novel The Catcher in the Rye became an immediate best-seller after it was published, also received criticism and rejection from several publishers. While women were not encouraged to become writers in Victorian times, today Brontë sisters' novels are regarded as classics of world literature. In short, perseverance is the key to success.  板块一 语言知识 1.“We regret to inform you...” These are the words that every writer dreads receiving, but words every writer knows well. (教材P14)“我们抱歉地通知您……” 这句话对每个作家而言,既可怕又熟悉。

语言点1 regret v.感到遗憾;惋惜;懊悔 情境探究 ①I regretted having left the work unfinished. 这件工作我没有做完,感到有些后悔。

②We regret to inform you that your application has not been successful. 我们很遗憾地通知您,您的申请未通过。

③I regret that I am unable to accept your kind invitation. 很遗憾,我不能接受你的友好邀请。

④It is with great regret that our department has to downsize to three people. 非常遗憾的是,我们的部门要减员至三人。

归纳拓展 (1)regret having done/doing sth.后悔做了某事 regret to say/tell/inform...that遗憾地说/告知…… regret that+从句 很遗憾…… (2)to one's regret让某人感到遗憾的是 with great/deep regret很遗憾 (3)regretful adj.遗憾的;后悔的 学以致用 (1)单句填空 ①It cost me a fortune, but I didn't regret spending (spend) a year traveling around the world. ②Much to my regret, I am unable to accept your invitation. ③I regret to tell (tell)you that your problems are beyond my power. You'll have to turn to someone else, I'm afraid.  ④Surprisingly, she didn't feel nervous, or regretful (regret) about her actions. (2)单句写作 ⑤她懊悔没能看那场电影。

She regretted having missed/not having seen the film.  ⑥很抱歉地通知您,因航班延误,我将无法参加会议。

I regret to inform you that I won't be able to join the meeting due to the late arrival of my flight.  语言点2 inform v. 通知,告知 情境探究 ①(2018全国卷Ⅰ)Now, I am writing to inform you of some relevant details.现在,我写信告诉你一些相关的细节。

②We were informed that our school would reopen on May 19th.我们获悉学校将于5月19日复课。

③(2019全国卷Ⅲ)Be sure to stay on topic and not offer irrelevant information. 一定要紧扣主题,不要提供不相关的信息。

④The school promised to keep parents informed about the situation. 学校答应让家长随时了解情况。

归纳拓展 (1)inform sb. of/about sth. 通知(告知)某人某事 inform that+从句 通知,告知 (2)information n.信息(不可数名词) (3)informed adj.有知识的;了解情况的;见多识广的 头脑风暴 类似“动词+sb.+of sth.”结构的常见动词短语还有哪些? 答案: cure sb. of sth.治愈某人的病;改正某人的不良行为 remind sb. of sth.使某人想起某情况(事) rob sb. of sth.抢劫某人某物 warn sb. of sth.警告某人某事 学以致用 (1)单句填空 ①(2018江苏卷)Two days ago, Mom asked me to find relevant information (inform) on the Internet. ②The kids are much better informed (inform) than I was at their age. ③Mr. Smith looked blank when he was informed (inform) of his dismissal.  (2)单句写作 ④后来他告诉我,我“不擅长运动”。(2018北京卷) He later informed me that I was “not athletic”.  ⑤他们将把自己所取得的任何进展都告诉他。

They would inform him of any progress they had made.   ⑥我们能够从互联网上获得我们需要的信息。

We were able to get the information we needed from the Internet.  2.The response from a publisher comes back and the writer eagerly opens and reads it, their hearts sinking when they reach that final sentence. (教材P14)出版商给了回信,作家急切地拆开来读,但读到这最后一句,心随即跌落谷底。

语言点3 独立主格 情境探究 ①He sat in the front row, his mouth half open. =He sat in the front row, and his mouth was half open. 他坐在前排,嘴半张着。

②Her work done, she sat down for a cup of tea. =When her work was done, she sat down for a cup of tea. 她干完了活,坐下来喝茶。

③Many trees, flowers and grass to be planted, our school will look more beautiful.种上许多的树、花和草后,我们的学校将看上去会更美。

④The huntsman entered the forest, gun in hand. 那位猎人手里提着枪走进了树林。

归纳拓展 (1)their hearts sinking为独立主格结构,为“名词+现在分词”形式,在句中作状语。

(2)独立主格结构一般放在句子中作状语。它不是一个完整的句子,其构成还有以下几种形式: ①名词(代词)+形容词 ②名词(代词)+副词 ③名词(代词)+介词短语 ④名词(代词)+不定式 ⑤名词(代词)+过去分词 名师点津 独立主格结构的特点: (1)独立主格结构的逻辑主语与句子的主语不同,它独立存在; (2)独立主格结构一般用逗号与句子分开; (3)“with+复合宾语”结构也可看作是独立主格结构的一种形式。

He lay there, his hands trembling. =He lay there, with his hands trembling. 他躺在那儿,双手发抖。

学以致用 (1)单句填空 ①The party will be held in the garden, weather permitting (permit). ②There being (be) no buses, they had to walk home. ③The road covered (cover) with snow, they had to stay at home. (2)句型升级 ④The boy lay on his back and his hands were crossed under his head. →The boy lay on his back, his hands crossed under his head.   ⑤Because there were two exams to take the next day, Tom spent a sleepless night. →Two exams to take the next day, Tom spent a sleepless night.  ⑥Because the guide led the way, we had no trouble getting out of the forest. →The guide leading the way, we had no trouble getting out of the forest.  3.Everyone knows that success rarely happens overnight, but perhaps not many know that a lot of highly successful writers have previously faced rejection.(教材P14) 大家都明白,成功不是一蹴而就的;但也许很多人都不知道,许多卓越的作家也都曾被拒稿。

语言点4 rarely adv.很少,难得 情境探究 ①They battled against other Indian tribes, but rarely fought with the whites. 他们与其他印第安部落交战,但很少与白人作战。

②I very rarely wear a raincoat because I spend most of my time in a car. 我很少穿雨衣,因为我大部分时间都在车上。

③It's extremely rare for her to lose her temper. 她难得发脾气。

归纳拓展 rare adj.稀少的;稀罕的,珍贵的 It's rare for sb. to do sth.对某人来说做某事是罕见的 名师点津 rarely是含有否定意义的副词,位于句首时,句子应部分倒装,有类似用法的否定副词还有never、little、seldom、hardly、scarcely、nor、neither等。

She is a warm-hearted person. Rarely does she refuse to help others. 她是个热心肠的人,极少拒绝帮助别人。

Hardly has he been seen playing basketball recently. 最近几乎没见过他打篮球。

学以致用 (1)单句填空 ①It is rare to see (see) such a sight in winter.  ②I rarely (rare) have time to read a newspaper. (2)句型转换 ③I have rarely seen such a beautiful sunset. →Rarely have I seen such a beautiful sunset. (倒装句)  4.When she received her first rejection letter, she decided that it meant she now had something in common with her favourite writers, and stuck it on her kitchen wall.(教材P14) 当她收到第一封拒稿信时,她决定把这看作是自己与喜爱的作家之间有了共同之处,并把这封信贴在厨房的墙上。

语言点5 have something in common with 与……有共同之处 情境探究 ①Mary claimed that she had much/a lot in common with the character she plays. 玛丽说她同她扮演的角色有许多共同之处。

②In common with most educated people, she prefers classical music to jazz. 像大多数受过教育的人一样,她喜欢古典音乐胜过爵士音乐。

③Joe and his friend own the restaurant in common. 乔和他的朋友共同拥有这家餐馆。

归纳拓展 have much/a lot in common with与……有很多共同之处 have little/nothing in common与……几乎没有/没有共同之处 in common with与……相同 in common共有,公有 学以致用 (1)单句填空 ①In common with many people, he likes traveling during the vacation. ②In fact, Tina and I have a lot in common with each other, while my sister and I are totally different. ③Tom and I rent the same house, so we have a kitchen in common. (2)单句写作 ④虽然他们是兄弟,但他们并没有共同之处。

Though they are brothers, they have nothing in common with one another.  ⑤和许多人一样,我喜欢白色,因为它是纯洁的象征。

In common with many people, I like white as it is a symbol of purity.  5.“I wasn't going to give up until every single publisher turned me down, but I often feared that would happen,” she later posted.(教材P14)“我不会放弃的,除非所有的出版商都拒绝我。不过我常常担心这真的会发生。”她后来说。

语言点6 turn down 拒绝;把……调低,关小 情境探究 ①Please turn the radio down; I am trying to sleep. 请将收音机音量调小,我想睡觉了。

②She turned on the light as soon as she heard his footsteps. 她一听到他的脚步声就把灯打开了。

③(2019天津卷)The book turns out to be one that has appealed to the world for more than 350 years.结果证明,这本书在过去的350多年里吸引着全世界的目光。

④(2018全国卷Ⅲ)He turned up at the hospital bearing gifts for the new mother Lindsey and her baby boy. 他带着礼物来到医院给新妈妈林德赛和她的孩子。

归纳拓展 turn on接通(水、煤气、电流等)(反义词组turn off) turn out结果是,证明是,生产 turn up 调高;出现 turn to求助于;转向 turn over(使)翻转;仔细思考 turn back 往回走,(使)折回 学以致用 (1)单句填空 ①(2019全国卷Ⅰ)It turns out that just looking at green, growing things can reduce stress, lower blood pressure, and put people into a better mood. ②Please turn the lights off when you leave the room. ③Please turn to the police for help when you are in trouble. ④Tom had to turn down the invitation to the party last weekend because he was too busy. (2)单句写作 ⑤上周,我们带我们学校的外国学生去体验了正宗的茶文化,结果是非常有收获的。(2018北京卷,书面表达) Last week, we took the foreign students in our school to experience the authentic tea culture, which turned out to be extremely rewarding.  ⑥此外,当你遇到一些令人困惑的问题时,请不要犹豫来找我帮忙。

Furthermore, when you meet with some puzzling questions, don't hesitate to turn to me.  6.So, it seems that talent alone isn't enough to guarantee success. (教材P15)因此,仅凭天赋似乎不足以保证成功。

语言点7 guarantee v.保证,担保,保障;确保 n.保证,担保;保修单,担保书;抵押物 情境探究 ①We guarantee to deliver your goods within a week. 我们保证一周内交货。

②These days getting a degree doesn't guarantee you a job. 如今获得学位并不能保证你就有工作。

③If we try to keep it a secret, she's guaranteed to find out. 如果我们试图保密,她肯定会发现。

④My watch is only one year old and is still under guarantee. 我的表只买了一年,还在保修期内。

归纳拓展 (1)guarantee to do sth. 保证做某事 guarantee sb. sth.确保某人有某物 be guaranteed to do sth. 肯定会做某事;必定会做某事 (2)offer/provide a guarantee提供担保 under guarantee在保修期内 词汇助记 学以致用 (1)赏句猜义 ①Tonight's victory guarantees the team's place in the final. v.确保 ②He gave me a guarantee that it would never happen again. n.保证 ③We can't guarantee that you are going to get the cheapest tickets possible. v.保证 (2)单句填空 ④My bike is still under guarantee, so they'll repair it for free. ⑤Just looking at a picture of the sea is guaranteed to make (make) me feel sick.  ⑥We guarantee to give (give) your money back if you are not delighted with your purchase.  7.While a lot of hard work and a touch of luck play a part, perseverance is the key.(教材P15)不懈的努力和一点点运气固然很重要,但坚持不懈才是关键。

语言点8 play a part 扮演角色,参与;起作用 情境探究 ①Geography also plays a part in making dialects. 地理环境对方言的形成也有影响。

②The actress wanted to play the part of an old woman in the play. 这位女演员想在剧中扮演一个老妇人的角色。

③She invited me to take part in her party but I hung back. 她邀请我去参加她的聚会,可我却犹豫不决。

归纳拓展 play a part in=play a role in 在……扮演角色;在……起作用 play the part of...扮演……的角色 take part in参加 take an active part in积极参加 易混辨析 (1)play a part/role in+表示组织/活动/戏剧等的词; (2)play the part of+表示成员、身份或角色等的词。

Audrey Hepburn played the part/role of Princess Ann in the film Roman Holiday. 奥黛丽·赫本在电影《罗马假日》中扮演安公主。

学以致用 (1)单句填空 ①In the opera he plays the part of an old fisherman. ②Professor King says loss of culture, land and language all play a part in poor health. ③I'll take an active part in physical training and enter the next spring sports. (2)单句写作 ④成功的关键是积极参与这些活动并抓住每一个机会。

The key to success is to take an active part in those activities and seize every chance.   ⑤随着科技的发展,智能手机在我们的日常生活中扮演着重要的角色。

With the development of science and technology, smart phones have played an important part in our daily life.  板块二 课文对译 用适当的词句补全教材原文。

We Regret to Inform You... “We regret to inform① you...” These are the words that every writer dreads receiving, but words every writer knows well. The response from a publisher comes back and the writer eagerly opens and reads it, their hearts sinking when they reach that final sentence②. You may have spent years giving up your weekends and free time to write your life's work, yet still this is often not enough. Everyone knows that success rarely happens overnight, but perhaps not many know that a lot of highly successful writers have previously faced rejection.  [文本解读]本文属于“总—分—总”结构,首段以“We regret to inform you...”引出本文主题,本段末句起承上启下的作用。

我们抱歉地通知您…… “我们抱歉地通知①您……” 这句话对每个作家而言既可怕又熟悉。出版商给了回信,作家急切地拆开来读,但读到这最后一句,心随即跌落谷底②。你可能已经花费数年时间,放弃了周末和空闲时间去创作你毕生的作品,但这往往还不够。大家都明白,成功不是一蹴而就的;但也许很多人都不知道,许多卓越的作家也都曾被拒稿。

  Take for example③ J.K. Rowling. When she received her first rejection letter, she decided that it meant she now had something in common with④ her favourite writers, and stuck it on her kitchen wall. Rowling had spent years surviving on little money, spending all her time writing. When she finally finished her first book, she received comments from publishers along the lines of “too difficult for children”, “too long”, “Children would not be interested in it”. Nevertheless, she persevered. “I wasn't going to give up until every single publisher turned me down⑤, but I often feared that would happen,” she later posted. After a total of twelve rejections, one publisher eventually agreed to print 500 copies of her first book, and as we know, Harry Potter became a global success, with over 400 million books sold and translated into more than seventy different languages.  [文本解读]以英国著名作家J. K. Rowling为例,阐释了勇往直前,永不放弃的精神。

  以J. K. 罗琳为例③。当她收到第一封拒稿信时,她决定把这看作是自己与喜爱的作家之间有了共同之处④,并把这封信贴在厨房的墙上。罗琳过了很多年拮据的生活,她把所有时间都用在写作上。当她终于完成第一本书时,出版商给出的评价却是“对孩子来说太难理解” “太长” “孩子们不会对它感兴趣”等等。尽管如此,她还是坚持了下来。“我不会放弃的,除非所有的出版商都拒绝⑤我。不过我常常担心这真的会发生。”她后来说。在收到12封拒稿信后,终于有一家出版商同意将她的第一本书印刷500册。我们都知道,《哈利·波特》后来在全球大获成功,销量超过4亿册,被翻译成了70多种不同的语言。

  All too often writers of great works have had to face criticism along with rejection. J.D. Salinger started writing short stories in high school, but later struggled to get his works published. “We feel that we don't know the central character well enough” was the criticism he received on his manuscript for The Catcher in the Rye. Despite rejections from several publishers, J.D.Salinger refused to give up⑥. Even when serving in the US Army during the Second World War, he carried six chapters of The Catcher in the Rye with him and worked on the novel throughout his war service. When it was eventually published, the book became an immediate best-seller and went on to sell millions and millions of copies.  [文本解读]本段讲述了J.D. Salinger如何面对困境、迎接挑战并最终获得成功。

  伟大作品的作家也常常在被回绝的同时还要遭受批评。J. D.塞林格从高中就开始写短篇小说了,但之后他的作品却难以发表。“我们觉得自己无法充分理解主人公” 这是他的《麦田里的守望者》的手稿收到的批评。即使被多家出版商回绝,J. D.塞林格也从未放弃⑥。甚至在二战期间在美国陆军服役时,他还随身携带了《麦田里的守望者》一书的六章内容,并在整个服役期间一直致力于小说的修改。最终,这本书一经出版,便立刻成为畅销书,卖出了上千万册。

  Perhaps the overall prize for perseverance should go to three sisters from Victorian England who dreamt of seeing their words in print. This, however, was a time when women were not encouraged to become writers. As the then Poet Laureate, Robert Southey, wrote to one of them: “Literature cannot be the business of a woman's life, and it ought not to be.” Nevertheless, the sisters didn't stop trying. Their response was to write a book of poems under male names⑦. Even when the book sold only two copies, the sisters still didn't give up. They started writing novels, and today Charlotte Brontë's Jane Eyre, Emily Brontë's Wuthering Heights and Anne Brontë's Agnes Grey are regarded as classics of world literature. In fact, it is within the pages of Jane Eyre that we can find these words:“I honour endurance, perseverance, industry, talent; because these are the means by which men achieve great ends...”  [文本解读]本段讲述了Brontë姐妹勇敢面对挫折,并最终获得成功的故事,第二、三、四段为平行结构。

  也许坚持不懈的最高荣誉应该颁给来自维多利亚时代的英国的三姐妹。她们梦想着看到自己的作品出版。然而,这是一个不鼓励女性成为作家的时代。正如当时的桂冠诗人罗伯特·骚塞在给她们其中一位的信中所说:“文学不可能也不应该成为女人的事业。”尽管如此,三姐妹并没有放弃尝试。她们的应对方式是以男性名字为笔名⑦写了一本诗集。虽然这本诗集只卖出了两册,但她们还是没有放弃,转而开始写小说。如今,夏洛蒂·勃朗特的《简·爱》、艾米莉·勃朗特的《呼啸山庄》和安妮·勃朗特的《艾格妮丝·格雷》被认为是世界文学的经典之作。其实,这正印证了我们在《简·爱》中读到的:“我崇尚忍耐、坚毅、勤奋、天赋;因为只有依靠这些,人们才能实现宏大的目标……”   So, it seems that talent alone isn't enough to guarantee⑧ success. While a lot of hard work and a touch of luck play a part, perseverance is the key. Keep trying and eventually you will read the words “We are delighted to inform you...” [文本解读]本段是总结段,“We are delighted to inform you...”与题目和首段的第一句相呼应。通过学习本文可以培养青少年面对挫折,不轻言放弃的毅力和品质。

  因此,仅凭天赋似乎不足以保证⑧成功。不懈的努力和一点点运气固然很重要,但坚持不懈才是关键。坚持下去,你终会收到这样的回复:“我们高兴地通知您……” Ⅰ.语境填词 1.He managed to pay off his debts(债务) in two years. 2.Children learn best by studying at their own pace (进度). 3.The truth is rarely(难得) pure and never simple. 4.Children who have had bad experiences fear rejection(拒绝). 5.There is little chance that we will succeed in changing the law. Nevertheless(不过), it is important that we try. 6.Plans for the new road have drawn strong criticism (批评)from local people. 7.Jane Austen's novels are among the best-loved classics(名著) in English literature. 8.We cannot guarantee(保证) that our flights will never be delayed. 9.My wife was delighted(高兴的) that things had returned to normal once more. 10.Whatever the final outcome(结果) of the talks, the war should end soon. Ⅱ.语境选词 give up, take...for example, stick...on, survive on, a total of, dream of, in print, make a living 1.How does it feel to finally see one of your articles in print?  2.Don't forget to remove the token(代金券) and stick it on your card. 3.You got 47 points on the written examination and 18 on the oral, making a total of 65.  4.Take the simple sentence for example: “The man climbed up the hill.”   5.The family refused to give up any of their land.  6.The family are struggling to survive on very little money.  7.My brother had always dreamed/dreamt of going to Africa.  8.She began to make a living as a music teacher after graduating from Shanghai Conservatory of Music.  Ⅲ.完成句子 1.完成任务后,我们进行了一次环球旅行。(独立主格) The task completed, we had a global travelling.  2.他在部队服役时学会了开吉普车和卡车。(when doing) He learned to drive jeeps and trucks when serving in the army.   3.向左转,你会看到一家银行旁边的邮局。(祈使句+and+陈述句) Turn left, and you will see the post office next to a bank.  4.怀里抱着一个睡着的婴儿,这位年轻妇女悄悄走进了房间。(with+宾语+宾语补足语) With a baby sleeping in her arms, the young woman walked into the room quietly.  5.他坐在扶手椅里,读着送报纸的男孩刚才送来的报纸。(现在分词短语作伴随状语) He sat in the armchair, reading the newspaper delivered by the delivery boy just now.  Ⅳ.课文语法填空 What does every writer most dread 1.reading(read) among the comments from publishers? Yes, it's “We regret 2.to inform(inform) you...”, which will make the writers' hearts sink. In fact, a lot of successful writers have 3.previously (previous) faced rejection.   J.K. Rowling, after a total of twelve rejections, eventually got her first book Harry Potter published, which became 4.a global success. Another famous writer J.D.Salinger persevered 5.in working on his novel The Catcher in the Rye despite the criticism along with rejections from several publishers and when it was eventually published, it became an immediate best-seller. The three Brontë sisters lived in the Victorian Age, a time 6.when women were not encouraged to become writers. Although they 7.dreamed/dreamt (dream) of seeing their words in print, they experienced many rejections. However, they persevered and now, Charlotte's Jane Eyre, Emily's Wuthering Heights and Anne's Agnes Grey 8.are regarded (regard) as classics of world literature.   From the stories above, we can learn that it was 9.perseverance (persevere) that made them realize their dreams. Therefore, keep trying and you'll eventually read the words“We are 10.delighted(delight) to inform you...” Ⅰ.单句填空 1.Many students admitted they were in debt when at college. 2.Western food and Chinese food have little in common with each other. 3.The test finished (finish), we began to travel around the south of China. 4.Our first task is to set (set) up a communication system in the mountains.   5.Zhou Kai is so healthy a boy that he rarely (rare) gets a cold or flu. 6.Follow the suggestions above, and you will feel much better in no time. 7.He cannot guarantee to work (work) for twelve hours a day.   8.Children who have had bad experiences fear rejection (reject). 9.As I grow older, I like to reread the classics (classic) regularly. 10.Jane has never dreamed of receiving a letter from a girl of her own age in Holland. Ⅱ.同义替换 pace, inform, dread, overnight, give up, stick to, turn down, survive on 1.I thanked him for the offer but refused it. (turned down) 2.Don't listen to those who promise you wealth suddenly. (overnight) 3.She realized she was wrong and stopped the argument. (gave up) 4.Next time you decide to take action, please tell me. (inform) 5.He came off the road while driving his car round a bend at high speed. (pace) 6.I managed to persevere in the diet and keep off sweet foods. (stick to)  7.We all fear to think what will happen if the factory closes. (dread) 8.Many families lived on leaves when their villages suffered from serious floods. (survived on)  Ⅲ.教材原句翻译 1.罗琳过了很多年拮据的生活,她把所有时间都用在写作上。

Rowling had spent years surviving on little money, spending all her time writing.  2.我不会放弃的,除非所有的出版商都拒绝我。不过我常常担心这真的会发生。

I wasn't going to give up until every single publisher turned me down, but I often feared that would happen.  3.即使被多家出版商回绝,J. D. 塞林格也从未放弃。

Despite rejections from several publishers, J.D.Salinger refused to give up.  4.然而,这是一个不鼓励女性成为作家的时代。

This, however, was a time when women were not encouraged to become writers.  Ⅰ.阅读理解                     (2020北京丰台高二上期中联考) Beverly Cleary has sold 85 million copies of 41 books and—if those numbers weren't impressive enough—she turns 100 on Tuesday. Though the world was a very different place when Cleary was a child, she has always maintained that kids pretty much stay the same—which explains the ongoing popularity of her beloved characters,like Ramona Quimby, Henry Huggins and Ralph S. Mouse. Cleary was in her early 30s and working part time in a bookstore when she sat down as a typewriter to see if just maybe she could write a book for kids. She had worked as a librarian before World War II, and she wished she'd had books for young readers about children living everyday lives. “I think children want to read about normal,everyday kids,” she told NPR in 1999.“That's what I wanted to read about when I was growing up. I wanted to read about the sort of boys and girls that I knew in my neighborhood and in my school... I think children like to find themselves in books.” Her first book, Henry Huggins, came out in 1950. Henry had a friend named Beezus, and Beezus had a mischievous(爱恶作剧的) but lovable little sister named Ramona. Over the next five decades, Cleary took Ramona all the way from the nursery school (托儿所)to the fourth grade. Cleary says when she was writing Ramona, she took inspiration(灵感) from a little girl who lived in the house behind her as a child. Her books have hooked generations of children, including young Jeff Kinney, who grew up to become the author of the “Diary of a Wimpy Kid” series. “I must have been about 8 or 9 years old when I first read Beverly Cleary,” Kinney recalls. “The book that really grabbed me was Ramona Quimby, aged 8. She looked feral. I needed to get to know this character.” “Most kids have parents, teachers, bullies(欺凌)—we all experience these things,”Kinney says. “And Beverly Cleary tapped into that. Her work is still as relevant today as when it first came out.” Now, generations of children have been fortunate enough to enjoy her stories of Klickitat Street. 1.What can we infer about Beverly Cleary's works? A.They are about adults' ordinary lives. B.They interest and delight young readers. C.They receive much criticism from other writers. D.They are based on Cleary's childhood experiences. 2.What gave Cleary inspiration for Ramona's stories? A.A neighborhood girl. B.Her work as a librarian. C.Her fourth-grade daughter. D.Her work experience in a bookstore. 3.What does the underlined word “hooked” in Paragraph 5 mean? A.Described.   B.Praised. C.Surprised.   D.Attracted. 4.Which of the following can best describe Beverly Cleary? A.Brave and patient. B.Generous and honest. C.Productive and influential. D.Considerate and optimistic. 答案 [语篇解读] 本文介绍女作家Beverly Cleary。她是一位多产且具有影响力的作家,她的书已经吸引了好几代孩子。

1.B 推理判断题。根据第五段Her books have hooked generations of children, including young Jeff Kinney, who grew up to become the author of the “Diary of a Wimpy Kid” series.可知,Beverly Cleary的作品使年轻读者感兴趣并使他们高兴。故选B。

2.A 细节理解题。根据题干中的关键词inspiration for Ramona's stories可以定位到第四段最后一句Cleary says when she was writing Ramona, she took inspiration from a little girl who lived in the house behind her as a child.由此可知一个邻家女孩雷蒙娜的故事给了Cleary灵感。故选A。

3.D 词义猜测题。根据第五段中的Her books have hooked generations of children, including young Jeff Kinney.可知她的书已经吸引了几代的孩子,包括年轻的Jeff Kinney。故选D。

4.C 推理判断题。根据第一段第一句Beverly Cleary has sold 85 million copies of 41 books and—if those numbers weren't impressive enough—she turns 100 on Tuesday.和第五段Her books have hooked generations of children, including young Jeff Kinney, who grew up to become the author of the “Diary of a Wimpy Kid” series.可知,Beverly Cleary是一位多产且具有影响力的作家。故选C。

Ⅱ.七选五 (2020山东青岛黄岛高二上期中考试) As the saying goes, “No man is an island.” We all need to connect with other people to fully give meaning to our lives. As we grow older, we develop closeness to certain people.  1 .  A Group of Friends Having a group of friends is healthy because you get to grow and learn things together.  2 , but your friends will always relate to you because they are going through the very same things. A good group of friends are the ones who make you a better person.  Your Best Friend Even if you belong to a group of friends, there will always be that one person you trust and care for the most. A best friend is that one person who listens to your problems and makes sacrifices for your sake.  3 . This person is someone who will believe in you and stand by you every step of the way.  The Bonds That Last  4 . There are times good friends are separated for years, but when they meet again, they feel as close to each other as they used to be when they were younger. And even though they get busy, all it takes is a reunion to rekindle all the happy memories and make new ones in the process.  A Good Friend To be a good friend does not have to mean you have to sacrifice an eye or a limb to prove your loyalty. You do not have superpowers to make all their problems go away. But what is great about a good friend is that when you need him or her, they are always willing to be there.  5 .  A.That is the true value and essence(精髓) of friendship B.These are what we call our “friends” C.Friendship is the hardest thing in the world to explain D.Friends do not have to always be together to remain friends E.Parents may not fully understand what you are going through F.You promise to stay in touch with people, but it doesn't work out G.He or she is your shoulder to cry on and your defender from your oppressors (压迫者) 1.    2.    3.    4.    5.     答案 [语篇解读] 俗话说:“没有人是一座孤岛。” 我们都需要与他人联系,以充分赋予我们生活的意义。随着年龄的增长,我们与某些人的关系越来越亲密。

1.B 考查段尾句和逻辑关系。根据前文As we grow older, we develop closeness to certain people可知,随着年龄的增长,我们与某些人的关系越来越亲密,故此处应填“这些人就是我们所说的‘朋友’”。故选B。

2.E 考查段中句和逻辑关系。根据前文Having a group of friends is healthy because you get to grow and learn things together可知,拥有一群朋友是健康的,因为你们可以一起成长,一起学习。故此处应填“父母可能不能完全理解你所经历的一切”。故选E。

3.G 考查段中承上启下句。根据前文A best friend is that one person who listens to your problems and makes sacrifices for your sake.可知,最好的朋友会倾听你的问题,并为你做出牺牲。故此处应填“他或她是你哭泣时的肩膀,是你摆脱压迫者的保护者”。故选G。

4.D 考查段首主题句。根据下文There are times good friends are separated for years, but when they meet again, they feel as close to each other as they used to be when they were younger可知好朋友有时会分开多年,但当他们再次见面时,他们感觉彼此之间就像年轻时那样亲密。故此处应填“朋友不必总是在一起才能成为朋友”。故选D。

5.A 考查段尾总结句。根据前文But what is great about a good friend is that when you need him or her, they are always willing to be there.可知,但是好朋友的伟大之处在于,当你需要他或她的时候,他们总是愿意在你身边。故此处应填“这就是友谊的真正价值和精髓”。故选A。

Ⅲ.完形填空 (2020北京师大附中高二上学期期中考试)   I lost my sight when I was four years old by falling off a box car in a freight(货物)yard in Atlantic City and landing on my head. Now I am thirty-two. I can still  1  the brightness of sunshine. It would be wonderful to see again, but a  2  can do strange things to people. I don't mean that I would prefer to go without my eyes. I simply mean that the loss of them made me  3  more what I had.  Life, I believe, asks a continuous series of adjustments to reality. The more quickly a person is able to make these adjustments, the more  4  his own private world becomes. The adjustment is never  5 . I was totally confused and afraid. But I was lucky. My parents and my teachers saw something in me—the  6  to live—which I didn't see, and they made me want to fight against blindness.  The hardest  7  I had to learn was to believe in myself. I am not talking about simply the kind of  8  that helps me down an unfamiliar staircase alone. That is part of it. But I mean something bigger than that: the confidence that I am, despite being imperfect, a real,  9  person;that there is a special place where I can make myself fit.  It took me years to discover and  10  this confidence. It had to start with the simplest things. Once a man gave me an indoor baseball. I thought he was making fun of me and I was hurt. “I can't use this,” I said. “Take it with you,” he urged(催促) me, “and roll it around.” The words  11  in my head. “Roll it around!” By rolling the ball I could hear where it went. This gave me an idea how to achieve a goal I had thought  12 : playing baseball. At Philadelphia's Overbrook School for the Blind I  13  a successful variation of baseball and I called it ground ball.   All my life I have set ahead of me a series of goals and then tried to reach them, one at a time. I had to be clear about my limitation. It was no good trying for something that I knew at the start was wildly out of reach  14  that only invited the bitterness of failure. I would  15  sometimes anyway but on average, I made progress.  1.A.remember   B.affect C.measure    D.bring 2.A.question    B.mistake C.disaster    D.situation 3.A.record    B.expect C.offer    D.appreciate 4.A.natural    B.modern C.meaningful   D.challenging 5.A.necessary   B.easy C.difficult    D.practical 6.A.right    B.plan C.place    D.potential 7.A.game    B.skill C.lesson    D.knowledge 8.A.self-control  B.self-confidence C.self-defense  D.self-improvement 9.A.modest   B.energetic C.generous   D.positive 10.A.strength  B.express C.share    D.destroy 11.A.held   B.stuck C.bothered    D.knocked 12.A.important   B.specific C.common    D.impossible 13.A.invented    B.confirmed C.checked    D.noticed 14.A.once    B.unless C.because    D.though 15.A.fail    B.try C.act    D.continue 答案 [语篇解读] 这是一篇夹叙夹议文。本文讲述了灾难挫折是如何成就一个人的。作者在年幼时失明,在经历了多年的彷徨无助之后,终于在亲人朋友的帮助下,找回了自信,学会了如何面对困难,并且在纷杂的社会中找到了自己的一席之地,实现了自己一个又一个的梦想。

1.A 句意:我还记得阳光是多么灿烂。由“Now I am thirty-two”可知,作者四岁失明,现在32岁了,但还是记得阳光是多么灿烂。remember记得;affect影响;measure估量;bring带来。故选A。

2.C 句意:能恢复视觉固然好,但灾难也能对人产生奇妙的作用。作者失明了,这对作者来说是一场灾难,但灾难也能对人产生奇妙的作用。question问题;mistake错误;disaster灾难;situation情况。故选C。

3.D 句意:我只是说失去视力使我更加珍惜自己其他的能力。record 记录;expect期望;offer提供;appreciate 重视。作者失明了,但更加珍惜自己其他的能力,这有助于作者完成自己的梦想。

故选D。

4.C 句意:人愈能及时地进行调整,他的个人世界便愈有意义。由“The more quickly a person is able to make these adjustments”可知,人愈能及时地进行调整,他的个人世界便愈有意义。natural自然的;modern现代的;meaningful有意义的;challenging有挑战性的。故选C。

5.B 句意:调整绝非易事。由“I was totally confused and afraid”可知,作者很困惑,很害怕,所以对作者来说调整绝非易事。necessary必需的;easy容易的;difficult困难的;practical实际的。故选B。

6.D 句意:父母和老师在我身上发现了某种东西——可以称之为活下去的潜力吧——而我自己却没有发现。他们激励我誓与失明拼搏到底。由“which I didn't see”可知,作者自己没有发现自己能活下去的潜力。right权利;plan计划;place地方;potential潜力。故选D。

7.C 句意:我必须学会的最难的一课就是相信自己。相信自己是一个过程,也是作者必须学会的艰难的一课。game 游戏;skill技能;lesson课,教训;knowledge知识。故选C。

8.B 句意:相信自己并不仅仅指帮助我独自走下陌生的楼梯的那种自信。由“I mean something bigger than that: the confidence that I am”可知,相信自己并不仅仅指帮助作者独自走下陌生的楼梯的那种自信。self-control自我控制;self-confidence自信;self-defense自我保护;self-improvement自我提高。故选B。

9.D 句意:我指的是大事:是坚信自己虽然有缺陷,却是一个真正的积极乐观的人;坚信在芸芸众生错综复杂的格局当中,自有我可以安身立命的一席之地。由“despite being imperfect”可知,虽然作者有缺陷,但却是一个真正的积极乐观的人。modest 谦虚的;energetic精力充沛的;generous慷慨的;positive积极的。故选D。

10.A 句意:我花了很长时间才找到并不断加强这一信念。由“It took me years to discover”可知,作者花了很长时间才找到并不断加强这一信念。strengthen 加强,巩固;express表达;share 分享;destroy破坏。故选A。

11.B 句意:他的话在我脑子里生了根。由“This gave me an idea how to achieve a goal”可知,他的话在作者脑子里生了根,所以决定去实现曾认为不可能达到的目标。hold握住;stick把……插在,粘贴;bother打扰,费心;knock敲。故选B。

12.D 句意:这让我想到如何去实现我曾认为不可能达到的目标:打棒球。作者是个盲人,且要打棒球。这在作者心里是不可能完成的。important重要的;specific特殊的;common普通的;impossible不可能的。故选D。

13.A 句意:在费城的奥弗布鲁克盲人学校,我发明了一种很受人欢迎的棒球游戏,我称它为地面球。由“I called it ground ball”可知,作者成功发明了一种变化式棒球。invent发明;confirm证实;check检查;notice注意。故选A。

14.C 句意:若开始就知道某个目标根本达不到却硬要去实现,那不会有任何好处,因为那只会带来失败的苦果。分析句意可知,前后表示因果关系。once 一旦;unless除非;because因为;though尽管。故选C。

15.A 句意:我有时也会失败,但一般来说总有进步。由“but on the average, I made progress”可知,make progress与fail相对应。fail失败;try尝试;act扮演;continue继续。故选A。